List of Sources

Church Sources:

LDS Facts & Statistics: 2022, 2021, 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998

LDS Welfare & Humanitarian Report, “Caring for those in need”: 2022, 2021

Archive: LDS Charities annual reports: 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2011 tearsheet

Welfare & Humanitarian (Fact Sheets and Other Updates): 2015, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2000-2009 Total Assistance Summary

General Authorities & General Officers: 2023, 2022, 2021

Commentary on Church Finances: 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000

Humanitarian Gifts Over $1 million: 2023 ($11.5M), 2022 ($4M, $5.1M, $4M, $1M, $32M, $5M, $10M), 2021 ($3.3M, $20M, $4M, $5M), 2020($5.5M, $2M, $1M)

Church statement on the settlement of charges with the SEC (2023):

Church newsroom review of major events in 2022. Large (>$1M) humanitarian donations. Church welfare statistics.

President Oaks GC address on helping the poor & needy (2022):

Church newsroom coverage of Elder Bednar’s NPC address and Q&A:

Elder Bednar comments at National Press Club (2022):

Church comments on LDS Charities Australia, in response to Sydney Morning Herald coverage of questionable tax structure & practices (2022):

Presiding Bishop Causse on Church finances, responding to WSJ coverage in Feb. 2020. Humanitarian & Church welfare data. Reporting & policy structure of Ensign Peak’s investment committees.

2019 statement on Church finances, issued in response to the IRS whistleblower report:

Monthly missionary contribution to be raised from $400 to $500 (deferred indefinitely due to the global pandemic):

Presiding Bishop Causse on Church finances & financial policy (2018):

Elder Andersen states “we are not a wealthy people” (2018).

Church financial policy described (2018). Expenditures will not be more than income; a portion of tithing will be saved every year:

Data on Church ranches in Florida (2016):

Church finishes first solar-powered chapel (2010):

Over 17,000 chapels worldwide (2009):

Data on 2008 hurricane relief efforts:

Church membership data around the world in 1996, the year non-US membership surpassed US membership:

Boyd K. Packer on evolving Church financial policies (1990):

Story of the beginning of LDS Charities in 1985:

Church land ownership in Florida (1975):

Boyd K. Packer on Church financial policy, self-reliance, humanitarian & welfare. (1975, republished 2005)

Joseph F. Smith predicts a day when the Church will not have to ask for “one dollar of donation for any purpose,” except that which members volunteer to give. Source reference is Conference Report, Apr. 1907, 7.

What is a Bishop’s Storehouse?

LDS Charities (site history through 2022):

Church Leadership Handbook: (specifically, section, “Assistance to Persons Who Are Not Members of the Church”)

Meetinghouse locator:

LDS family services rates (in AUD):

News Media Coverage:

(Descending chronological order)

60 Minutes, The Church’s Firm (2023), with extended interview cuts: Nielsen 1, Nielsen 2, Nielsen 3, Waddell 1

Deseret News on temples announced under President Nelson, 2018-2022:

CBC reports Church sent $1b tithing from Canada to BYU (2022): (Note: our analysis of the data here)

Sydney Morning Herald claims LDS Charities exaggerated its charitable giving (2022): (Note: article is factually in error — see here)

$250M settlement of Boy Scouts litigation is withdrawn, remains pending (2022):

Sydney Morning Herald reports questionable Church tax structure and practices in Australia (2022):

Church settlement of Boy Scouts litigation for $250 million in 2021 (note: this settlement was withdrawn in 2022 and remains pending):

SL Tribune on Huntsman lawsuit dismissed (2021):

WSJ coverage of James Huntsman tithing fraud lawsuit (2021):

Jana Reiss on reasons for decision to tithe outside the Church:

Wall Street Journal coverage of >$100 billion Church investments. Quotes from Church leaders on financial policy, reasons for secrecy and intended uses for the vast investments (2020):

SL Tribune coverage of >$100 billion Church investments (2020):

Deseret News coverage of >$100 billion Church investments and Presiding Bishop comments (2020):

Deseret News coverage of the 2019 LDS Charities global report (2020):

Church ends relationship with Boy Scouts (2018):

Master plan for long-term residential development of a large section of Deseret Ranch in Florida:

Nelson teaches tithing in Africa in 2018, “That same poverty continues from one generation to another, until people pay their tithing.”

Cash portion of humanitarian aid averaged $40 million/year leading up to 2016:

Details on City Creek Center (2016):

Data on Church farms (2015):

NBC estimates Church tithing revenue at $7b/year (2012): (Note: article fails to account for household size due to lower Canadian fertility rates & high % of US membership in Utah. With those adjustments, the article’s $7b estimate should have been closer to $4b. Our estimation methodologies peg 2012 tithing in the range of ~$4b)

Fourth mission of the Church added, “caring for the poor & needy” (2009):

Deseret News with some data on Church assets & investments (1991):

NYT estimates Church tithing income at $4.7b/year (1991): (Note: the Church responded that this estimate was “grossly overstated” and Quinn’s estimate for 1991 was $3.4 billion, using a constant 12.9% tithing growth since 1960. Our tithing estimation methodologies put 1991 tithing in the range of $1.5 billion.)

Information Aggregation Websites:

Wikipedia: LDS Church Finances, LDS Church Membership, Church Presidents, BYU Campus, Gordon B. Hinckley

Wikipedia (other data): Central Park, The Pentagon, World Population

US Census: Household Income, Utah

Fuller Consideration: Units, Membership

Mormon Wiki: Main, Bishop’s Storehouses,

Church wealth visualized with comparisons:

Food prices & other data:

Food prices & other data:

Food prices & other data:

Known Church farms (2014):

Known Church business holdings & other assets (2005):

Household sizes worldwide:

Inflation data:

Self-insured employer cost data:

Leaked documents (old): Handbook (1999), Handbook (2006), MormonLeaks, TTF

Church meetinghouse data:

Hotel construction cost breakdown:

Hotel construction cost breakdown:

Commercial construction & renovation cost breakdown:

Commercial construction cost breakdown:

Hotel furnishings costs:

Facility maintenance cost breakdown:


Ensign Peak 13F filings, 12/31/2019 to present:

Whistleblower report to IRS:

Whistleblower video walkthrough:

MormonLeaks discovery of shell LLCs concealing $32 billion in US equity holdings in 2018:

SEC order (2023):

SEC press release (2023):

SEC and Section 13(f) information: Form 13F, Interpretive Guidance on 13F (1978), Interpretive Guidance on Shared Investment Discretion (1978), Securities Exchange Act of 1934 with Amendments

Other SEC fines/penalties directly related to violations of Section 13(f): Cabot (1996), Mogy (2001), Quattro (2007)

2022 bear market:

Sovereign wealth funds:

Farm & other land value trends, nationwide (2007-2021):

Farmland value trends (2008-2022):

McKinsey on private equity returns:

Deseret Management companies:

MSCI world ex USA returns (international stocks proxy):

Jeff Bezos on the challenges with giving billions to charity effectively:


1,000 Temples?

Independent Studies:

Heinerman, J., & Shupe, A. (1985). The Mormon Corporate Empire. Beacon Press

Quinn, D. Michael. (2017). The Mormon Hierarchy: Wealth and Corporate Power (Volume 3). Signature Books (Site is offline as of 3/2023. Many properties listed but we disagree with the final amounts which are not sourced or analyzed in any detail. Archive snapshot here: (Database description here)

Charity & Humanitarian:

Regulated Filings:

Canada Revenue Agency: LDS Church

Australian Charity Register: LDS Charitable Trust, LDS Charities Australia, LDS Church, Fast Offering Fund Trustee, Building Fund Trustee

New Zealand Register of Charities: LDS Church

UK Charity Register: LDS Church (2021, 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017), Farmland Reserve

Netherlands ANBI financial filings: 2021, 2020, 2019, 2018 (not found), 2017, 2016

Federal Audit Clearinghouse (audited college & university financials — search “Brigham Young” or “Ensign College” in the “auditee” field) | BYU Provo 2021, 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015 | BYU Hawaii 2021, 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015 | BYU Idaho 2021, 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015 | Ensign College/LDSBC 2021, 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015

SEC Forms 13F: Ensign Peak (since | Shell companies used from 2003-2019 (with effective dates at first filing): Whitney (12/31/02), Argyll (12/31/06), Ashmore (12/31/12), Cortland (12/31/12), Green Valley (12/31/12), Riverhead (12/31/12), Tiverton (12/31/12), Elkfork (12/31/16), Flinton (12/31/16), Glen Harbor (12/31/16), Meadow Creek (12/31/16), Neuburgh (12/31/16), Tyers (12/31/16)

Form 5500 Search (federal filings related to employee benefits plans, such as 401k, pension, annuities, healthcare — search results for “Brigham Young University,” “Latter-day Saints,” and “Deseret Mutual”)

Ensign Peak Advisors IRS Form 990-T: 2019, 2018, 2017

Ensign Peak Foundation IRS Form 990: 2020, 2019, 2018, 2016

Property Reserve IRS Form 990-T: 2019, 2018, 2016

Farmland Reserve IRS Form 990-T: 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016

Farmland Reserve International IRS Form 990-T: 2019, 2017, 2016, 2015

BYU System IRS Form 990-T: BYU (2019, 2018, 2017, 2016), BYUH (2019, 2018, 2017, 2016), BYUI (2020, 2019, 2018, 2017)

Deseret Trust Company IRS Form 990-T: 2019, 2018

Lobbying Disclosures: Church, BYU

Professional Data Sources (subscription required):

Bloomberg Terminal Software

Search query data from LandVision and Reonomy (~1,500 entity names, >10,000 data rows)

LinkedIn Premium & Sales Navigator Professional

Main Page:

Feedback, including critical analysis, questions and links to overlooked sources, may be sent to at gmail dot com

List of Sources

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